Anime and Streetwear, its a Homecoming

Anime made its debut in American around the 60s. Since then its become a mainstay, with various facets of American society embracing it little by little. By this point Anime is as American as apple pie. Anime and clothing have had some type of relationship in America since, at least, the 90s. Though this has evolved from unlicensed merchandise to corporate merchandising to it finally having a wider acceptance in the world of Streetwear.

It started with skate decks

To fully understand Streetwear’s incorporation of Anime as an aesthetic. One has to look towards the origin of Anime in American society. Specifically in the 80s, when Anime had its second big run in America with the Robotech series. At the time it was highly acclaimed and had a strong fan base, as many Americans had never seen that style of Animation with a deep story line. It went on to influence various artists, one artist is particularly important. namely Jeremy Klein. Jeremy Klein is an important figure in the skating world, the man has designed many iconic boards, and was one of the people responsible for turning World Industries into a prominent skating company.

He had quite a wide array of art styles in his early years with World Industries. Drawings that echoed Norman Rockwell with a twist, referenced video games, were punk influenced, very sexual, basic flips, and even an Anime style that was the standard of that era. 1991 was the time that Jeremy released many hit decks, however the one thats probably helped define him was his Dream Girl deck. Released in 1991 for World Industries it was a major release. Jeremy has only given small insights as to why he designed something that was obviously inspired by Anime of the early 90s. It summed up his interests at the time, which were Anime, Mechs, and of course women hence the name. He would eventually take the concept of Dream Girl and expand it to create Hook-Ups Skateboards in 1994. Hook-Ups boards were very controversial as they often had Anime women with big beasts posed sensually. Though he also included various facets of Japanese culture and even gave nods to it in his videos and ads. Jeremy’s Hook-Ups boards have since become collectibles, especially his older boards.

Though whats important is that Jeremy was possibly the first person to put and sell Anime characters on clothing. This is pretty significant, considering that at this time it was definitely not a cool thing in fashion, nor was it even on Streetwear’s radar. Its important to note that Klein used Anime more or less as a mascot for Hook-Ups. Some designs expressed Japanese culture, so in some ways it was a bit educating, though that probably wasn’t the point. Hook-Ups has used Anime primarily in a one dimensional context in order to give the brand a strong identity in the skating world.

Klein would go on to ride for Birdhouse, continuing his style of controversial graphics, and making a few Anime inspired designs.

People like it, let’s sell It

1996 saw Dragon Ball Z  have its debut on public TV. Many kids, and even teens were in awe. DBZ had nearly blasted the doors open for Anime in America. It was nearly a revolution.

Though finding official tees to rep your favorite shows is easy to do today, years ago it wasn’t the case. It was rare for cartoon shows to have tees or hoodies available to people. Even in the 90s. Only Disney and Warner Bros were really making apparel featuring their most popular Animated characters. Companies who made cartoons were only interested in selling toys or action figures to kids.

This lack of officially sanctioned merchandise eventually led to people creating unofficial merch. This is pretty interesting, as companies that owned the rights to certain Animated series may have thought that licensing things other than toys would be unprofitable. Yet people were clearly profiting off other companies’ intellectual property.

I can recall going to Venice beach as a kid and visiting various shops with my siblings. On one of these trips we stumbled upon a shop that carried a multitude of DBZ merch. They were selling VHS, posters, coasters, poker decks, and clothing. In hindsight I know that all that stuff probably wasn’t licensed by whoever owned the rights to DBZ at the time. Needless to say, you could have found shirts at certain swap meets, with Goku or Vegeta. Of course those shirts would never say Dragon Ball Z on them. You could even find some crappy toys that looked like the Z fighters.

Thats Un-American

There was obviously a market for clothing with people’s favorite TV characters on it, more so with cartoons. It wouldn’t really be til the first few years of the 2000s that studios would realize that they could make money by putting popular characters on t-shirts. Even when Animation studios did do this, it was a slow relationship for Anime and fashion. In the late 80s Vans had made shoes for Disney, it was the start of making cartoons fashionable, and making them more financially marketable.

It became more typical to find American animated series apparel in retail and department stores. Spongebob would be an obvious example, as countless clothing items could be bought from places like JC Penny to Walmart. However Disney broke ground a bit earlier with their Disney stores, making their licensed apparel somewhat more available, besides having to go to Disneyland itself.

However as American animated shows saw a boom in merchandised clothing, Japanese Animated shows were still on the fringes of society. Eventually bootlegged DBZ items were more or less stopped as Funimation who held the rights to DBZ tried to further capitalize on its popularity. The Early 2000s saw some decent looking tees be released. The tees were pretty straight forward, having prints of the individual Z Fighters. However they were pretty hard to come by. The tees were almost always found in places that sold DVDs/VHS, think FYE. They’d typically be segregated in the Anime section, plus there would only be a few tees. By the mid 2000s DBZ was over, and not much had changed with Anime and fashion. Other Anime series in America continued following DBZ’s method of selling clothing and other merch.

Part of the reason why Anime apparel wasn’t widely available at this time, may have been due to it being seen as too foreign. Although shows like Pokemon, Yu-Gi-Oh, and DBZ were popular. It was undoubtedly clear, probably to adults and American retail stores, that those shows were definitely not American. Perhaps as a result, these shows became fads, instead of initially becoming classics, on par with shows like Dexter’s Lab, Invader Zim, or Samurai Jack. While Pokemon, Yu-Gi-Oh, and DBZ had great fan bases at the start of their first runs in America, eventually it drove away its initial audience with various elements that are found in Japanese Animation.

Things would soon change in the latter 2000s with the mass opening of Hot Topics across many malls in America. Though the store has no viable link to Streetwear, it did serve as a platform for fashion and Animation’s relationship to evolve. While its demographics were strongly held in the goth world, eventually they decided to start selling various Animated series merch. Of course it started with American Animated shows. However Hot Topic soon started looking towards Anime, not as a niche culture, but something that was obviously going to appeal to millions of Americans. As such, something perceived as being on the fringe for years, finally had a much stronger presence.

Triumvir’s last stand

 In 2008 the Recession was officially recognized in America. The world of Streetwear was going through changes. Brands that were thriving before were not doing so well. This was also true with Triumvir, a brand which had quite a rep for their products and concepts. The economic turmoil as well as Streetwear’s doubted financial market caused rifts within the brand.

One of Triumvir’s last great releases were their Street Fighter collabs. At face value the collabs seem uninspired or lazy. They are important, as it was the first time a major Streetwear label decided to tap into Anime. Moreover it may have been the first time Anime and Streetwear came together in America. While most people may think that Street Fighter is wholly a gaming thing and has no connection to Anime, thats not the truth.

The original concepts for the characters were drawn in a very 1980s Anime style, by of course Japanese illustrators. Likewise there was a manga series, an Animated movie, and even an Anime series. With all of this in mind Triumvir had decided to formally collaborate with Capcom. Again this was something pretty rare at the time. The collab was met with a mix of anticipation and hate. People were obviously questioning whether a capsule collection that involved video games and Anime even belonged in Streetwear. Look in the comments section of blogs and you’ll understand why this collab was a bit too ahead of its time.

The focus of the collab was quality and artwork. The first collection was the Shadaloo Psycho Brigade drop. An entire wardrobe that did a good job at balancing Streetwear and Anime. It managed to be stylish, without coming off as being too geeky or otaku. The collab was followed with graphic tees that showcased artwork based off the original concept art for the Street Fighter games. Most of the tees were line art, complimented with watercolor graphics that added a sense of motion to a seemingly flat piece of art. However the concept of the collabs eventually lost interest in the Streetwear community. By 2011 the collabs were over and Triumvir was fading away.

The Street Fighter collabs proved that well designed graphic tees with Anime or video game inspired backgrounds, could indeed be accepted in Streetwear. Triumvir’s collab was something that crossed over into other territories. Specifically into the gaming and Anime communities. Capcom used the collab as a way to generate hype for Street Fighter IV, along with other famous street artists, like Futura. It seemed to work well for both entities. Triumvir actually ended up on Wired’s radar, as well as Kotaku, though their respective communities were not as fond of the collab.  It would still be a while before any major Anime Streetwear collab would come about. Bape’s collabs with One Piece and Mastermind Japan’s Gundam collabs were major steps in Anime’s relationship with Streetwear in America. As both brands had a strong presence in America, with an equally strong reputation. The Japanese fashion community has  a good relationship with Animation/Manga. They know how to treat the medium with respect, but more importantly they see it as part of their culture.

Probably the biggest challenge for Anime to become an accept Streetwear element, is Anime’s far flung otaku and cosplay communities. Otakus are people who more or less thrive on Anime and its glorification. Though otakus usually come off as being geeky and, unfashionable. People’s sense of fashion is the last thing Otakus may focus on. Whereas in Streetwear its basically the opposite. Theres also Anime’s cosplay community, which at times can paint Anime fans as being too enthusiastic for something that is often perceived as childish. However due to some high profile collabs with big name Streetwear brands, Streetwear’s view on Anime has finally started to change.

Though the Anime industry has begun to change in a general way. Japanese culture has become more prominent, things that were once thought to be weird, are more accepted now. Things like Pocky, a popular Japanese food item which could be seen in various Anime shows, has nearly become an American mainstay. It can found in Wal Mart and other big chain grocers, however 10 years ago, you’d probably be hard pressed to find some. Theres also the fact that every major streaming service in America has a sizable amount of Anime in their libraries. Theres also a huge fanbase of Anime fans, including celebrities, who probably wouldn’t qualify as being otakus. Kanye West is an examaple, as his Stronger video was obviously a nod to Akira. Probably the most damming evidence that Anime has reached a strong acceptance in America, is Victoria Secret’s 2012 fashion show, in which a model wore a body suit that ripped off Rei Ayanami’s plugsuit.

Don’t trust the new kids?

 Streetwear has grown to great prominence, becoming a legitimate rival to the fashion hierarchy. Stussy is often regarded as starting the movement, while other brands have helped the evolution of Streetwear by adopting certain themes. Such as guns, drugs, women, flipping logos, and most importantly referencing.

Referencing and appropriation of different cultures or scenes has become a very defining characteristic of Streetwear as well as other American industries. Some of the best examples of referencing in Streetwear are tees that try to use the least amount of its source material to bring about a certain mood or idea. Movies are a good examples, as sometimes characters or even phrases have been taken out their context in order to become something else. Heres a good example using Goodfellas, a nice little reference and appropriation by SSUR. It possibly suggests that anyone living the “life” will always meet a brutal end. There has also been the referencing of music icons. This tee, referencing 2-Pac, basically shows its disdain with the current trend of music of the time, circa 2009. There was also Rouge Status’ once infamous gun show tees. That last example is strongly significant because it shows how Streetwear can appropriate things from other cultures and use them to create a strong tone. The gun show design featured guns, specifically military grade weapons, and threw it on a tee to bring about a really aggressive attitude.

All of these examples have taken their inspiration from various corners of American society. America is perhaps where Streetwear is at its strongest. Thats not to say that it is a  purely Western style of design. Various Streetwear brands have popped up in places such as Europe and Asia. Though Eastern brands have a strong unique aesthetic, like Bape and Clot.

In America this is significant, as there are various Asian ethnic groups, who for the most part have never been greatly represented. None Asian American’s love of Anime have ultimately sparked an interest in various Asian cultures. Anime itself has a bigger acceptance in Asia, whether its in Japan, Korea, China, etc. However Asian Americans are not defined by where their parents came from, or the customs they may share with their distant families in Asia. Instead they have begun to grow their own identities and have even had a strong hand in shaping modern Streetwear. Like Bobby Hundreds and Brian from Triumvir.

However progress has slowed. Things that are readily accepted in mainstream America, are what most Streetwear brands use to create their aesthetic. Its why you’ll see more tees that say Fuck in English, but maybe none with Chinese curse words. It’s why you’ll see tees with 40s on them, but not sake. Its why you’ll see more references to American action movies, but maybe not samurai flicks. This also poses the question as to whether or not Anime can be considered a Streetwear thing? The same can said about brands that have done flips on Garfield, the Peanuts gang, and even Disney. People should be able to appreciate well drawn artwork, it shouldn’t matter what the influence is. Anime in particular, with the right artists, can produce very amazing drawings.

Over the last few years a kind of revolution or more appropriately a new generation of American Streetwear brands have sprung up that have brought Anime back into the Streetwear scene. More importantly they’ve brought along their Asian backgrounds, fusing together an aesthetic that is a strong combination of American design with obvious Asian undertones. Ronin is perhaps the first of these brands. Having a strong samurai culture theme, specifically the ronins. Their Mugen tee was possibly the first American Streetwear tee to reference Anime, even using it as an aesthetic. It was released back in 2012, since then other brands have been upping the ante and using Anime more as a theme or motif.

While these newer brands may use Anime, it definitely doesn’t label them as Anime Streetwear brands. It has instead been able to give Asian culture a stronger footing in Streetwear, its also brought back the artistic element, it will perhaps even revitalize Streetwear as a whole. Beyond Anime, each brand has their own unique aesthetics that aren’t easily defined. Many of the newer brands like Sequence, Third Vision, and Hidden Characters employ artists to their rosters.

Thats not to say that brands using Anime or referencing Asian customs have to have an Asian background, Jeremy Klein would be an obvious example. Even Hmn Alns, and his famous stylings of Anime characters in streetwear.

While people may not understand how art and Streetwear’s relationship has been over the last 25+ years, there have been times when the two fields closely worked together. Obey’s Shepard Fairey is an example as the man is a highly recognized street artist, who eventually crossed over into streetwear with his limited graphic tees that showcased his sought after prints. This was also true for artists like Futura and KAWS, whose early Streetwear collabs were highly acclaimed and made brands push Streetwear in new directions. Though as of today Streetwear is in a vexing situation. While the industry has grown to great financial heights, it can be said that its golden age is over. The community has developed a formula to keep money flowing, which many can’t argue with. The biggest brands in the game aren’t really bringing anything new to Streetwear. Likely the lack of newer artists or ideas has caused these brands to rely on what they already know, instead of taking risks and looking for new inspirations. In its heyday the golden age of Streetwear, as a whole, was pushed along by multiple people from various backgrounds, today its mostly left to the graphic designers.

This newer generation of Streetwear may be known as the Anime era someday, or not. These guys use Anime, but it doesn’t pigeonhole their style. Many of these brands express a love of Asian culture, but its not their crutch. They’re very American brands, their attitudes reflect this. One day they may be compared to brands like Supreme or Stussy. Another interesting observation is that Anime’s new found relationship with Streetwear is almost an isolated event. While Jeremy Klein and Hook-Ups may have been the first guys to put Anime on their tees, it can’t be said that they influenced the current trend of Streetwear brands doing the same thing. Even though they did collab with The Hundreds on the Dream Girl design. Unfortunately Triumvir may also be in the same boat, though they used Anime as an inspiration, they didn’t use it as an aesthetic per say. Instead their executions were typically straightforward, and their link to Capcom ultimately leaves their designs in the realm of licensing. Not flipping or appropriation, as many Streetwear brands in the past and even today use other companies’ designs without their consent to bring a more authentic feel to their designs. Flipping/ripping is almost always the Streetwear way.

The future looks bright for the newest crop of HB brands. Every year their fanbase grows, and they keep redefining what Streetwear can mean. While their possible precursors are returning to much anticipation. Jeremy Klein has headed Hook-Ups graphics department since 1994, and even retroed his Dream girl design multiple times. This year he finally decided to reissue his old designs from his early days at World Industries. Some of his biggest being Veggies, Chun-Li, and of course the OG Dream Girl design. Likewise Triumvir is looking to make a return in Streetwear, earlier this year they held a preorder for 2 reissue tees. Brands tapping into the vastly unused Japanese art of Anime will continue to break barriers, it can also be said that they’ve helped give gaming and Asian culture a new found acceptance, only time will tell how these brands will change Streetwear in the long run.

*Anime & Streetwear part 2.

Brands to watch, in no order of prominence:

*Dangerers Death Tribe (defunct)

*Effulgence

*Hidden Characters

*Jeremy Klein

*Motiv USA (defunct)

*Ronin

*Sequence (defunct)

*T.H.E.

*Third Vision (defunct)

*Trailing Nimbus

*Triumvir (defunct)

2016 brands to watch:

*Anime Trash Swag

*Effulgence

*Hidden Characters

*Jeremy Klein

*Ronin

*T.H.E.

*Trailing Nimbus

2017 brands to watch:

*Anime Trash Swag

*Effulgence

*Hvy Blk

*Hidden Characters

*Jeremy Klein

*Jessika Limited

*Phantom Source

*T.H.E.

*Trailing Nimbus

Interstellar – Survival and Family

Christopher Nolan has been well known for his film making style, everything seems so dark, calculating, dramatic, but with an added resonance of hope. The last three films he directed explored different themes. The Dark Knight explored the concept of heroes, and what makes someone a symbol of hope. Inception challenged people in their perceptions of reality and mental stability. While the Dark Knight Rises was essentially about people overcoming their past and trying to build a future. Likewise Interstellar has different themes. While pegged as a space exploration film/Sci Fi epic, its more than that. Even before the film was released, in an interview Nolan remarked that Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey was an influence. Indeed both films share a strong Mise en scene. However Nolan introduces some elements of space travel , many filmmakers probably wouldn’t think of when they think of space. Specifically morality, family, and relationships. When people think of space travel, a picture that might pop in their heads are the few astronauts. All of whom are stringent, grounded in a world of science, who probably don’t rely on emotion when making decisions, but rather facts. Family, love, or more broadly relationships are an important theme in the movie. The film is of course held together by the concepts of physics and theoretical time travel.

IF YOU’VE ALREADY SEEN THE MOVIE YOU CAN SCROLL PAST THIS

The main protagonist is Cooper (Matthew McConaughey), a former NASA astronaught who is widowed with two kids, his daughter Murph (Mackenzie Foy) and his son Tom. Its very clear from the start of the film that Cooper is a typical family man. He has a strong attachment to his kids, although he has a special bond with his Murph. The setting of the movie is very bleak, dosed with an inkling of hope. Its the future, though perhaps not too far off from the present. America’s government, maybe even the world, has devolved into a society dependent on food, more specifically agriculture. Earth is dying, as a result so is the world’s variety of readily available food. The only food source that is still commonly on hand is corn. All the other types of crops have been killed off by blight. On top of that, much of the world is being ravaged by dust storms, causing many people to become sick and eventually die. This whole setting of a world nearing its end continually drives home the concept of humanity’s need to survive. This is reflected in Cooper and his children, as they all react to this idea differently. In Cooper’s case he initially feels that mankind will pull through their food shortages.

In Murph’s room, books fall from her shelf on occasion. This leads her to believe that theres a ghost trying to communicate with her. However Cooper tries to help Murph get over her belief by challenging her to prove the ghost is sending her a message. Through the books falling over, Murph uses an algorithm, and is able to come up with some coordinates. Cooper is intrigued and decides to take Murph to the location.

It turns out that the location is a secret NASA base. Cooper and Murph encounter TARS, a Marine robot. It plays an essential role with humans being able to maintain their morals, TARS also provides some comedic relief. The remnants of NASA are headed by Professor Brand (Michael Caine), someone Cooper worked with while he was still a test pilot for them. Brand explains that NASA’s mission is to try and a find a planet humanity can colonize, aka the Endurance mission. He goes on to explain that years ago a worm hole appeared, that was close enough for NASA to explore. This brings up some interesting questions as none of the scientists are able to figure out why a worm hole is there. Their only conclusions is that some kind of alien lifeforms, or “they,” put the worm hole there to help humanity survive. On the other side is another galaxy, which could have a habitable world. Astronauts were sent to 12 different worlds, aka the Lazarus Missions, to asses their habitability. Brand further explains, that Earth cannot be saved, and that the corn is slowly succumbing to blight. This is major turning point for Cooper, as to him surviving meant providing food for his kids and protecting them. He then feels that he must find a new home for his family, as well as humanity. Brand is able to convince Cooper to head the Endurance mission. Though Cooper is worried that he will never be able to return to Earth in time to see his kids again. As he leaves, Murph is extremely distraught and tries to stop her father from leaving. She deciphers a new message, which suggests that Cooper should stay. He of course does not leave, and Murph holds a great grudge against him.

The Endurance Mission has two plan.  The crew is made of Cooper, Doyle (Wes Bentley), Amelia Brand (Professors Brand’s daughter), Romilly (David Gyasi), CASE (another robot), and TARS. Plan A is to find a habitable world and go back to Earth. So that hopefully Humanity will be able to send out mass colonies, so that humanity will survive. However Plan B is more radical. It would involve the Endurance crew to stay stationed on a habitable world and populate the planet with fertilized eggs. In that scenario Earth is abandoned. This presents a difficult question about moralities. As the fate of Earth is literally in the hands of a few people, who at any time, could decide to leave Earth behind and create a new civilization. Cooper is of course going on the mission believing that Plan A will work, he is further motivated in returning to Earth to see Murph again. Amelia (Anne Hathaway) seems committed to going through with Plan B, if necessary. Though in general no one, save for Cooper, has any strong relational ties to Earth. Nonetheless Cooper continues to think of his family and on occasion argues that the crew must also think of the billions of other people stuck on Earth. Cooper occasionally receives video messages from his son and father, though Murph refuses to send him any messages as she feels abandoned by him.

As the months pass on the Endurance finally crosses into the wormhole and encounters an alien that seemingly shakes Amelia’s hand. While on the other side of the hole three planets are chosen to survey: Miller, Mann, and Edmund. Its noted that Miller is close to Gargantua, a black hole, this will cause time to move slower on the planet than on Earth. Its predicted that an hour on Miller will equal seven years on Earth. While Cooper is against visiting Miller, he is able to figure out a route, which will allow them to avoid losing many years on Miller. Romilly and TARS stay on Endurance. While on Miller its discovered the planet is covered in water and that huge tidal waves are moving across the surface. Amelia is able to grab Miller’s onboard computer. A huge tidal wave approach which hits Doyle, killing him. However TARS and Amelia get to the ship on time. They are delayed from leaving due to the ship having to empty excess water. This greatly affects Cooper as he knows he is losing many years of being with his family, especially Murph. This helps to iterate that time is precious. Not just for Cooper and his family, but for humanity’s survival, as food shortages are likely increasing while hope many continue to decrease.

Amelia discovered that Miller’s ship only landed an hour ago, so her calculations, as well as the other scientist’s are very wrong. She shows how unprepared humans are for traversing interstellar space, Cooper further chastises her for her reckless actions of grabbing Miller’s computer. Once Cooper and the others get back to the Endurance its revealed that 23 years have passed. Romilly, with some graying hairs, laments how lonely and hopeless he was becoming. He helps to demonstrate that the scientists attitude of solitude does little to help them out in space, and in ways impacts them negatively. As a result of the lost 23 years, the Endurance only has enough fuel to visit one more planet and possibly return home.

Romilly reveals that they continued to get messages from Earth, but can’t send any back. Cooper watches the videos over the last 23 years and sees his son grow into a man. However he gets no videos from Murph over the years. The last two videos focus on Cooper’s kids believing he is dead. Tom (Casey Affleck), who has a family and is now grown up, finally lets go of the hope that his father is alive. Whereas Murph (Jessica Chastain), who is now her dad’s age, sends one video to Cooper saying that while she regrets not sending videos to him, shes lived with her decision and is ready to let go of their memories together. This of course fuels Cooper’s drive to get home and back to his family.

Back on Earth Tom is now farming the same crops his dad did, he continues to believe that his family’s survival is dependent on the crops. Murph is now at NASA, working as Dr. Brand’s assistant. She eventually notices that Brand seems to be repeating the same approaches to solving the equation to gravity. Earth is being hit with more devastating dust storms. Hope is fading. Brand ends up in the hospital and on his deathbed reveals to Murph that he solved his equation many years ago. However he requires more data, which is impossible to obtain. He further explains that he believed Plan A wouldn’t work, and the he actually sent the Endurance away to hopefully initiate Plan B.

The Endurance crew debate on which planet they should visit next, because if the next planet is uninhabitable, then they will likely commence Plan B. Amelia expresses her choice of Edmunds, while Cooper chooses Mann. Dr Mann headed the Lazarus Mission and was seen as so heroic that he managed to convince 11 other scientists to join the mission. Romilly is at odds to which planet to choose. Until Cooper accuses Amelia of being in love with Edmunds, and thus it being a factor for why she chose his planet. She concedes she loves Edmunds, but defends her choice, regardless the team heads for Mann.

Planet Mann seems to be made of nothing but ice. They find Dr Mann’s base and discover its in somewhat bad condition. His robot KIPP has been disassembled. They awaken Mann, who is extremely  ecstatic to see them. He explains that while he didn’t have much hope of returning home, he was falling into despair due to prolonged isolation. When questioned about his planet’s lack of life, he persists that theres a lower surface which contains alien life. They are soon sent a video message from TARS by Murph. She informs Amelia that her dad died, then addresses her father if knew that the Endurance mission was a shame. Mann proceeds to explain that he knew of Professor Brand’s true intentions.

This information devastates the crew. Again Cooper’s objectives change. Instead of following through with the journey to Edmunds he plans to take the Endurance home and abandon the mission. TARS proposed an idea in which it will be sent into Gargantua and send the data back to the Endurance so that hopefully they will have enough information to enact Plan A. Everyone seems onboard with the idea. Mann decides to show Cooper the inhabitants of the planet.

They reach a cliff, at which time Mann discards Cooper’s comm link and tries to kill him by cracking his helmet. Mann had faked his findings and disabled KIPP so it wouldn’t stop him. He further talks about survival and that while he has always been a person who prefers to be alone, he couldn’t bare to die alone. Cooper accuses Mann of being a coward, which he sorrily admits to. Not wanting to see Cooper die, Dr Mann heads for the base, determined to assure his survival by moving forward with Plan B. Cooper is able to find his comm and warn the others of Mann’s treachery. Amelia heads to Cooper’s location with Mann’s ship, while at the same time Romilly powers up KIPP only for it to explode. This scene shows that while Mann was seen as a somewhat mythical hero, he is still a human who, despite his high intelligence is motivated by his basic instincts to survive.

The next scene is very intense, as Mann and Cooper’s team both try to beat one another to the Endurance. While Mann makes it to the airlock, CASE has previously locked their ship’s autopilot. Mann keeps trying to manually dock Cooper’s ship, but fails. Desperate he manually opens the airlock, only to be killed by the depressurization. The Endurance is forced into a spin, Cooper is able to manually dock the ship, with some very hard maneuvering. However Mann’s actions have damaged the Endurance. They no longer have enough life support to make it to Earth.

The revelation that Cooper won’t be able to see Murph weighs on him. Again his priorities change. The team plan use Gargantua’s gravity to slingshot them to Edmund, while still planning to send TARS into it to collect data which hopefully will help humanity’s journey into space. Cooper has a short conversation with TARS in which the robot expresses its desire to help humanity to which Cooper and Amelia show regret that they will likely never never see TARS again. Once TARS is ejected into Gargantua, surprisingly Cooper also ejects himself. He likely does this, as he no longer has a drive to live since he will not see his family again. This helps Amelia and CASE escape Gargantua and head for Edmund.

On Earth Murph visits Tom, and notices that his wife and child seem to be sick. She asks Tom to join them at NASA, At which point Tom angrily refuses as he feels staying at the farm will ensure his family’s survival. Back at NASA she persuades Getty to help her convince Tom to move to NASA. Despite Getty’s warning that Tom’s family will die due to dust poisoning, he again stands his ground. Murph sets fire to Tom’s crops on the far side of his property, as a distraction in an attempt to smuggle Tom’s wife and son to the NASA base. While she tries to leave she is drawn back to her room, specifically to an old watch her dad gave her. There shes stuck in thought about the old messages she received as a kid.

Cooper is sucked into Gargantua, he ejects as his ship sustains heavy damage. Strangely he ends up in a mysterious space, theoretically a tesseract. In it he sees various moments in time which apparently are focusing on himself and his daughter Murph. While he cannot pierce the barriers and go into these moments of time, he realizes that gravity is able to travel through the barriers.  Likewise he comes to the conclusion that he was the ghost in Murph’s room as well as the alien that shook Amelia’s hand. Surprisingly Cooper discovers that TARS is alive and has collected the data. TARS explains that “they” created this space for Cooper to understand time. Cooper theorizes that they are a future form of humanity that has evolved into fifth dimensional beings. With all this new information Cooper is able to send Gargantua’s information via morse code to the watch he gave Murph.

Murph realizes Cooper was her ghost, and understands hes sending her an equation. She relates to Tom that their dad is indeed alive and has saved humanity. Back at NASA she is able to solve the problem of gravity, thus allowing humanity to begin preparations for their journey into interstellar space.

Once Cooper has relaid all the data he is seemingly ejected from the tesseract and floats aimlessly in space until he passes out. He awakens in a hospital, believing he is back on Earth. Only to realize hes actually on a colony ship in space. The doctor informs Coopers hes 124 years old. Meaning that his kids have not seen him in 90 years. Though he is informed that Murph is coming to visit him. He is shown a museum which is modeled after his farm, there are various kiosks that feature interviews with people he knows and of course his kids. inside the house he finds a nonfunctional TARS. TARS is given a new battery and both discuss the success of Plan A. Back in the hospital Cooper is finally reunited with Murph, her large family is also present. Both are visibly emotional over finally seeing each other again. They talk alone, Cooper wants to keep Murph company as she is on her deathbed. However she laments that she doesn’t want Cooper to see her die, instead she encourages Cooper to go to Edmund to find Amelia, as Murph insists that her family will see her through her final moments of life. On planet Edmund Amelia can be seen, presumably burying Edmund, with her and CASE being the only inhabitants. An emotional Cooper obliges his daughters wishes, he and TARS board a modern Ranger and set off towards Edmund to retrieve Amelia.

 END FILM SUMMARY

There are different themes about the film that can be examined. Although the main points seem to be the value of family, more broadly love, and even survival. Cooper’s family takes center stage in examining these concepts. Another element is that there is no main antagonist, instead emphasis is put on humans trying to traverse the frontier that is space.

The idea of survival has different meanings for key characters. Cooper’s concept for survival is being able to save his family from hunger, this later evolves into his need to find a new planet where he can take his family to. Cooper is heavily motivated by his deep desire to see his kids again, Murph in particular. When planning out Endurance’s routes he takes extra precautions to ensure that the ship will make it back to Earth. This likely aided him in his fight with Mann, as he refused to succumb to death. Cooper’s actions were heavily influenced by his ties to his family. Theres also Tom, who is likewise influenced by his father’s old idea of survival. In particular his desire to sustain crop production for his wife and child. However this goes to the extreme, in that he believes that the only suitable place to live is on his family’s old farm. Despite experts advising otherwise, though he possibly stays due to his various memories attached to the farm. Murph is a bit different as she believes in a bigger picture of survival, somewhat closer to Brand’s ideals. She heavily believes that humanity must solve the equation that would enable space travel for all of humanity. She is nonetheless motivated by family, as she had a strong desire to shelter her brother and his family from the dust storms. Then there is Brand’s concept of survival. Professor Brand had a very broad idea of survival, he was trying to save humanity as a species, thus thinking of the future. His daughter Amelia, more or less agreed with his ideals. She was determined to save humanity. Of course she tried to make Plan A work, however she would have also followed through with Plan B if needed. Although she has a father, she was obviously ready to leave him behind, so her concept of survival is driven by practicality. While of course being motivated, by a bit of love. Lastly there is Dr Mann. Unlike the other main and supporting characters, Mann seems to have no family or loved ones. He seems alone in life, hes heavily motivated by science, reason, and instinct. Mann saw Plan B as the only option, for his and humanity’s survival. Though he is accustomed to being alone, he understands that instinctively he does not want to die alone. This prompts him to fake his planet’s data as being inhabitable, so that he can hopefully be saved. Of course his actions prove troublesome, as he knows that faking his data will jeopardize humanity’s survival, this could result in his arrest and even death. Mann has little reason to go back to Earth, of course Cooper’s plan prompts Mann to try and kill him. Once Mann is almost docked to the Endurance, his instincts kick in. This proves to be fatal, as a scientist he knew that opening the airlock while his ship was not docked properly would kill him. Being in a desperate situation caused him to rely too much on his instincts. He became too focused with trying to get into the Endurance by any means necessary.

Even TARS and CASE play a significant role with survival and morality. Firstly both are robots, whose primary programming is of course to ensure the survival of their human superiors. Moreover humanity in general. However they tend to almost be a symbol of hope. TARS is often used to lighten the mood. Being AIs they are aware of people’s fear and try to ease their nerves. This can be noted when the team is first launching into space. TARS tells a joke to calm the Endurance team, save for Cooper, as its their first time in space. Later in the film when TARS is reactivated by Cooper, it cracks a joke that it will soon self destruct, in response he lowers TARS’ comedy setting. It likely does this because Cooper has been on quite a dramatic journey, and needs to feel something other than being humanity’s savior. Beyond this both robots seem more human than the humans. In one scene TARS is seen briefly talking to CASE who has been lying dormant for a few years. The exchange isn’t even about anything technical, instead TARS inquires how CASE is doing. Later CASE sees Dr Mann’s robot KIPP, and asks him if he would like CASE to try and fix KIPP. With this questioning, the viewer can assume that the robots have some sense of compassion, if their concern for humans isn’t real, their concern for their own kind is. This is in contrast to the scientists who all seem to prefer their own space, and who seem to either dislike each other or generally show apathy. Even towards the end of the film, TARS decides to sacrifice itself by going into the black hole, without being ordered to. Regardless TARS did not need to volunteer itself, nor did it have to propose the idea.

Finally the last theme to explore is the theme of family, or more broadly relationships. In the case of Cooper and his family, everyone is motivated by their families. Cooper embarks on the Endurance mission because of his family, he never loses hope and he puts more thought into his actions because he knows that in the end he will be reunited with his children. One could that Cooper was able to derail Mann’s plans, because of his strong parental drives. Whereas Mann was dependent on himself. Cooper follows through with his mission as he knows it will save his children. If someone else had been trapped in the tesseract, someone without a family, someone who had no strong ties to another person, they probably would have lost all hope within the tesseract. Family is especially important to Tom, who basically refuses to move his family from, what he believes is the most secure place for them to live. Family is even important to Murph, while throughout the movie she shows great defiance towards her father’s actions, she nevertheless returns to her old room, and examines the old watch given to her by her father. If she really did want to let go of her memories of Cooper, she wouldn’t have picked up the watch. This in turn could have meant Earth’s demise. To a lesser extent, Amelia is also driven by relationships, specifically love. Theres a certain scene in which she explains the importance of love, and even argues that love is something that can be measured scientifically. It likely played a role in her decision to explore Edmund instead of Mann. She seemed so certain that Edmund would be habitable planet, in the end it seems she may have been correct. Her love for Edmund is possibly why Cooper tries to sacrifice himself. He probably figured that Amelia would be more determined to pilot the Endurance to Edmund and continue the mission because someone she loved was on the planet. Even at the end of the film, an elderly Murph reiterates the need for family and love as it acts as a catalyst that can help people achieve more.

Besides all of the various themes sprinkled throughout Christopher Nolan’s Sci Fi epic, there are also technical things that make the film more enticing to see. The entire film was shot on 70mm IMAX film, making it a beautifully shot film. Nolan stated that CGI was used minimally as possible, and that miniatures were used as much as possible. This helps brings a greater authenticity to the movie, and it shows. Theres no sloppy effects and the shots of the ships are probably the nicest things to look at. For science buffs looking for an accurate movie, well astrophysicist Kip Thorne helped make the black hole and other science related elements more accurate. Interstellar’s plot is long and sometimes it might be hard to follow, it may also be hard to understand some concepts. However this movie is worth a watch, and other rewatches.

Animation – A Never Ending Story Pt 4 – The Death of Animation

The 80s was a time of rebellion. It was a time of great consumerism. It was a time of true Capitalism. It was all Reagan’s era. For the last 60 years Animation had gone through many changes, yet the market had always been dominated by certain companies. These companies, in many ways felt that they were indestructible. Disney and Warner Bros controlled the theatrical Animated market, while Hanna-Barbera had always been in control of the Animated television spectrum. However many of these studios were being lead by much older animators. Many of these people were vastly out of touch with what children would be interested in watching. Their era was that of the 50s, 60s, and 70s. As a result many top Animators of the Golden Age of Animation were no longer working as Animators. Those who stayed in the industry, were usually given executive positions in their respective studios. Disney’s Nine Angry Men are an example of this, as these men used to be Disney’s best Animators. By the the start of the 80s, they had either died or were given executive positions in Disney. The state that Animation was in was about to change drastically. A newer generation was coming which was about to destroy the old guard. However there would be no true victor, instead the 90s would have to come and create a whole new world of Animation, in order to repair the damage done in the 1980s. At the heart of this, Capitalism can be blamed, as Animation on TV had been deregulated by Ronald Reagan’s administration. Whereas Animation in film was not necessarily dominated by Disney. In fact Disney made various blunders during this time, which ultimately forced them to change how they approached theatrical Animation.

In 1980 Warner Bros decides to restart their Animation studio and create Warner Bros. Animation. The man who greatly helped with the creation of the Looney Tunes, Tex Avery, dies. In his heyday Tex created many famous characters such as Daffy Duck and Porky Pig as well as various others. His ideas helped make Warner Bros a force to be reckoned with in Theatrical Animation, and even surpass Disney’s style of Animated creations in terms of popularity. Pacific Data Images (PDI) is founded. They pioneer a somewhat easy computer Animation program, which ultimately will lead to the first CGI movies by Pixar. The last Peanuts feature film, which is part of the original Peanuts series, is released, Bon Voyage, Charlie Brown (And Don’t Come Back!!). Thundarr the Barbarian by Ruby-Spear Productions premieres on ABC. Thundarr and his friends battle evil wizards in a post apocalyptic future. The Fly, by Pannonia Studios, wins the Academy Awards for Animated Short Film. It revolves around seeing the world through a fly’s eyes, and ends with its ironic death.

1981 brought a new era in America. Specifically in politics, as Ronald Reagan began his presidential term in January 1981. Reagan was notoriously pro big business, as he allowed the deregulation of many markets within America. Wall Street took advantage of the deregulated markets, lots of money was made and lost. In 1981 Ronald decides to appoint Mark S. Fowler the chairman of the FCC. He would serve from 1981 to 1987. Like Reagan he was a big believer in deregulation. He applied this to the Television based Animation industry, as he believed in a free market system. There were no more rules, the FCC no longer had a barrier between big business and children. It was typical for companies that targeted children, such as Mattel, to pay for advertisements during a cartoon show. The money from the advertisement would then go to the TV stations. If the show was popular, and the Animation was fairly cheap to produce, then the show might be renewed. The effects of Fowler’s actions would be felt soon. The Smurfs by Hanna-Barbera Productions is released. It is arguably the studios’ last great original cartoon, before going bankrupt. Marvel Productions releases their first project: Spider-Man, a cartoon based on the comics. The studio was birthed from the defunct DePatie-Freleng Enterprises. Disney releases their first film of the 80s The Fox and the Hound. People will count the 80s as a decline for Disney Animation, as their films during this era were very hit and miss. Some were either acclaimed or panned, some were financial successes while others did poorly. Warner Bros Animation’s first theatrical release is The Looney Looney Looney Bugs Bunny Movie, the feature is a compilation of classic Looney Tunes shorts. While there is very little new Animation in the film, it does show that the studio will have a future. Heavy Metal by Gerald Potterton is released, it was produced by Ivan Reitman and Leonard Moge. It was based on stories from the adult magazine of the same name. It was interesting because of the quality of the Animation, the very adult oriented stories, and use of some rotoscooping. While it did not make much money it has become a cult hit. Crac by Société Radio-Canada wins an emmy. The short focuses on the life of a rocking chair from the pre to post industrialized Canada.

The Last Unicorn by Rankin/Bass Productions is released in 1982 to critical acclaim. Its style is very unique, making it very discernible from the likes of Disney and its imitators. Don Bluth Productions emerges as a potential rival to Disney with their film The Secret of NIMH. Don Bluth originally worked for Disney, but felt that their stories lack depth and creativity. He left to try and prove that Disney’s take on Animation was flawed. This same year Disney’s Tron, a major live action movie, is the first movie to use computer Animation for extended periods. All the animated parts add up to about 15 minutes of CGI. One of the first cartoons to come out of the deregulated TV Animation market would be The Shirt Tales by Hannah Barbera and Hallmark cards, they were originally created by Hallmark as greeting cards. Under the new FCC system, this was ok. Before a show such as The Shirt Tales would have likely been shut down by Action for Children’s Television aka ACT. Likely through protesting at the studios which aired the show, or by sending a petition to the FCC. However Fowler was no longer listening to ACT, nor did he care that businesses would possibly be enticing children to buy their products through the use of cartoons basically designed as commercials. The Shirt Tales are a perfect example of businesses targeting children, as the product was already in existence and so Hallmark figured they could make more money by spinning their product off as a Saturday morning cartoon. The plot was very convoluted, basically a bunch of park animals would fight crime in the city as well as using their vehicle the STSST to explore the world. This upped the importance of the Saturday morning cartoon. Beforehand many toy, doll, and other children’s companies would pay for advertising during the Saturday morning cartoon block. Every major network had a Saturday morning cartoon lineup, such as ABC, CBS, and NBC. Pac-Man The Animated Series soon premiered the next week. Another partnership between an Animation studio and a company whose principle market was children. This duo being Namco and Hannah Barbera. Partnerships like this would be very common throughout the 80s. Pendleton Ward and J.G. Quintel are born this year. Tango by Film Polski nabs the emmy this year. More of an art film, an empty room is slowly filled by people who are repeat their own unique movements until everyone slowly leaves.

1983 finally introduces cartoons to syndication. Syndication basically allows one particular show, that is owned by whatever studio, to be aired on multiple networks. This is a pretty lucrative business. Through before the 80s, cartoons had not been seen as a viable market, mostly due to ACT’s actions in limiting the number of advertisements that could be used to target children. For example, in the past Hannah Barbera might create Scooby-Doo and try to sell it to the three major networks. However only one network would have wanted to air said cartoon. This is where He-Man and the Masters of the Universe comes into play. Mattel created He-Man in 1981 as an action figure. Later Mattel partnered with Filmation, who were able to come up with a somewhat understandable plot for the He-Man series. Basically the series chronicles Prince Adam as he protects his home of Eternia from the forces of darkness. Episodes were shown on different networks/stations and were shown on the weekdays. Creating a potential market for weekday cartoons, instead of the usually Saturday morning cartoon formula. This same year G.I. Joe a Real American Hero is released by Hasbro, while Toei Animation produced the episodes. This series is again based on a toyline, though from the 1960s, however is was very controversial. Caused due to the characters being rendered as anatomically correct humans, they carried real guns, death and violence was seemingly in every episode. Both He-Man and GI Joe cartoons proved to be big financial successes in terms of toy sales. So much so that other, less conventional toys spawned their own cartoons. Namely the Rubik’s Cube. Rubik, The Amazing Cube is released in September of this year. Every episode deals with a magic Rubik’s Cube named Rubik who is sentient and has powers when his blocks are lined up properly, but his blocks always get jumbled so his two kid friends always unjumble his cubes and awaken Rubik to save the day. Needless to say this was an example of a company trying to capitalize on their product by exploiting Animation, reducing its creative elements to that of a mere extended commercial. Of course this show was not successful and was soon canned. However various companies would continue to try and capitalize on their products through the use of TV Animation. Ralph Bakshi’s Fire and Ice is released, it is a commercial failure and marks Ralph Bakshi’s end as a commercial Theatrical Animator. The film follows Larn, a man from a lowly village, as he escorts a princess back to her kingdom and saves the world from an evil Queen. Sundae in New York by Motionpicker Productions wins an Academy Award. The claymation short is in essence a celebration of New York through the singing of New York, New York by Frank Sinatra.

The Adventures of André and Wally B. by The Graphics Group is released in 1984. John Lasseter Animated the film. This technically marks Pixar’s first movie. Even though it was only 2 minutes long, it was highly acclaimed as the short was very creative at the time. Everyone who worked on the project had some Art or Animation background, before this the only people who had access to CGI animation software were typically scientists who made very uninspired CGI sequences. At this time The Graphics Group was part of Lucasfilm. Bob Clampett dies. He worked on many Merrie Melodies and Looney Tunes projects. As well as directing other films for other studios, such as Private Snafu and Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs. Hasbro decides to launch another toyline along with a tie in animated series. Transformers was birthed, though its creation was a bit complex. Its toyline was based off of a Japanese toyline by Takara. Toei Animated the original mini series, as well as most of the original series. AKOM Animated some episodes for seasons 1-3 and all of season 4. What makes this series so interesting is that most of Transformers’ creation is of Japanese origin. Furthermore it was mostly Animated in Japan, then later in Korea making it a wholly foreign cartoon, regardless Transformers still managed to be a massive hit. The series follows the war between the Autobots and Decepticons, a classic tale of good vs evil. Except they all happen to be robots who can turn into cars. As with many shows that become financially successful, some companies would rip off their ideas. Challenge of the GoBots is a cartoon, which many feel copied much of the formula that made Transformers successful. The series was based on a toyline by Tonka, while Hanna Barbera developed the series. Like Transformers two factions of robots, the good Guardians, and the evil Renegades battle on Earth in a millenniums old conflict. During this time Disney was in danger of losing its entire Animation archive and studio. A corporate raider named Saul Steinberg had envisioned this crazy idea. In the name of capitalism and greed Saul figured he could buy enough Disney stock to have a majority stake in the company. He then wanted to sell off the Animation arm of Disney, as he felt he could make tons of profit from selling the archive off in pieces instead as a whole division. Fortunately Disney’s CEO and COB, Ron Miller and Ray Watson, were able to stop him. Though Saul did not give up easily. He eventually massed together enough cash to fulfill his plan. Seeing no way out, Disney decided to cave and payoff Saul, giving him $325 million. He actually made a nice profit, and the shareholders were pissed. This disaster led to Roy E Disney’s return to Disney, while he was still on the board he had resigned earlier this year. He sought to protect Disney, so he kicked out the CEO and COB. He then installed Michael Eisner and Frank Wells as CEO and COO/President. Roy was then given his chair back and made the vice chairman of the Disney board of directors, as well as head of the Animation department. The Canadian film Charade by Michael Mills Productions wins the emmy for this year. The plot revolves around two different men playing charade, with one being better than the other.

1985 sees Disney trying to go in a different direction in terms of their animated feature films, to this end they release The Black Cauldron. A dark movie, with depth, and an enticing plot. However the film was a flop. On the other side of the Animation spectrum, the first toy based Animated feature film is released by Filmation, He-Man and She-Ra: The Secret of the Sword. The movie acts as a staging point to introduce She-Ra. Later the She-Ra: Princess of Power show begins airing on different channels. This takes production promotion to another level, as other feature films based on kids toys are released. Such as The Care Bear Movie and Rainbow Brite and the Star Stealer. Both shows already had TV shows, though this disturbing trend of toy based cartoon franchises continued to grow as money was still being made. By this point there were many shows like this, such as Jem and M.A.S.K. whose main goals were selling toys instead of trying to introduce original and creative cartoons. The idea for franchising a cartoon typically started with the release of a toy, then maybe a comic, and then finally the cartoon itself. With movies being the high points of the series, followed by its end. However this was going to lead to a disastrous end to the American Animation industry of this era. The ThunderCats is released by Rankin/Bass Productions. Unlike other shows of this time, there was no preexisting toyline that inspired the series. Instead the series was created by Ted Wolf, interestingly the show was Animated by Japanese studio Pacific Animation Corporation. The show involves the heroic ThunderCats battling the evil Mumm-Ra. Disney throws their hat back into the TV Animation ring with Disney’s Adventures of the Gummi Bears and The Wuzzles. This is Disney’s dawning of their TV based Animation division. A game changing “cartoon” is released by Harmony Gold USA, titled Robotech. In actuality the series was an Anime, made up of three different Anime, known as the Macross series in Japan. Tatsunoko Production Co helped with adapting the three series into one cohesive plot. Though they were the original creators of all three Anime. Needless to say the show was a hit in America. It brought high quality Animation and singular plots. Whereas most American Animated series up to this point did not have strong plots to follow, and characters lacked strong development. This also was a small stepping stone for Anime to come to America. Anna & Bella by Børge Ring wins the 1985 emmy. The story follows two sisters in their afterlife reminiscing about their pasts.

Steven Spielberg throws his hat into the Animation ring with An American Tail. Although it was directed by Don Bluth and Animated by Amblin Entertainment, Spielberg helped with production. The movie had an effect on both Spielberg and Disney. Earlier Disney had released their own feature The Great Mouse Detective. However An American Tail grossed more revenue, leaving some critics to believe that Disney Animation was becoming irrelevant. Spielberg took the success of An American Tail as a sign that Animation could be a viable medium to make money and tell intriguing stories though. He would later involve himself in more Animation productions as a result. Pixar Animation Studios is finally formed. This same year they release their first official short, Luxor Jr. which centered on two desktop lamps playing with a ball. By this point another formula becomes commonplace for cartoons, the 65 episode minimum for syndication. The idea was to have enough episodes to air for the weekday. Being that a weekday is made up of five days, a series could run for thirteen weeks. Which is about a quarter of a year, this was done purely for ad revenue purposes. As stations wanted their slots filled with cartoons, to attract both children and potential advertisers. This was brought about as many of the most successful cartoon franchises were made up of at least 65 episodes. Although shows that did not meet the 65 episode requirement were still picked up and usually sent to the Saturday morning blocs. Even if a series did make 65 episodes, most cartoons were never commissioned for more seasons or episodes. This all had to do with production costs, as most companies that commissioned a cartoon series were looking to make quick profits. A longer running series would only drive up production costs and potentially hinder profits. Filmation and Columbia release their own Ghostbuster series’. Filmation had created a Ghost Busters tv show back in the 70s. Though Columbia had released a Ghostbusters movie in the early 80s, and while the concepts were similar, both were related in no way. So when Columbia decided to created a cartoon show based on their movie, Filmation actually offered to produce the show. However Columbia was still mad at Filmation, due to a settlement Columbia had to make with Filmation over the Ghostbusters name. As a result Filmation released Filmation’s Ghostbusters, whereas Columbia was forced to name their cartoon The Real Ghostbusters. Both shows had very similar plots. Hanna Barbera releases their last Scooby-Doo series that follows the original series’ style and exists within the Scooby-Doo continuity. Titled The 13 Ghosts of Scooby-Doo, it focuses  on the gang having to recapture some ghosts they freed by accident. It ends an era, as Scooby-Doo had been running in one series after another since 1969. It had arguably been Hanna Barbera’s last great show with long lasting appeal. Rambo: The Force of Freedom by Ruby-Spears Enterprises is released. Unlike some cartoons, that were based on movies or other live action TV programs, this series was the first to be based on an R-rated film trilogy. It was actually marketed for kids, despite the fact that Rambo had suffered from PTSD from his time in the Vietnam war. Although strange as it may be, Rambo: The Force of Freedom actually managed to make the 65 episode cut. The cartoon even got its own toyline, which of course was again marketed to kids. Dragon Ball, an Anime based on a manga by Weekly Shōnen Jump and Animated by Toei Studios, begins airing in Japan. While it would be years before the series would come to America, the series ultimately would act as a gateway for future Anime to come to America. A Greek Tragedy by CinéTé  takes home the Academy Award. Three Greek sisters try to save an ancient Greek temple.

1987 is a very important year in American Animation, as it marks the end of Fowler’s reign as the FCC commissioner. This would have deep ramifications, which ultimately contributed to the death of American Animation in the 80s. Though the FCC would begin to start regulating children’s programming the following year, this year the typical system of TV Animation is followed. The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles is released by Murakami-Wolf-Swenson. Though IDDH, a french company, also helped with production. The series, was actually based on a dark toned comic, and usually followed the very goofy adventures of the turtles. The toyline came after the series had its first few episodes, as Playmate Toys were unsure if the cartoon would be a success with children. Beyond the successes of the TMNT and Disney’s DuckTales, it was obvious that the TV arm of the Animation industry was burning out. As many shows were very bland, or were constrained creatively by the toy companies that Animation studios had relied on for much of their business. If a show like The Adventures of Teddy Ruxpin can’t convince you how random and unstimulating cartoons had become by this point, you may be in denial that American Animation has had its low points. The plot followed a teddybear-looking bear, as he followed a map in search of treasure, along the way he battles an evil organization. Thats pretty stale writing. Furthermore it did indeed make the 65 episode minimum for weekday syndication. However not all was lost. The Simpsons shorts by Matt Groening begin airing on The Tracey Ullman Show. While the shorts were only a few minutes long, they began to increase in popularity. So much so, that it would eventually surpass The Tracey Ullman Show in notoriety and financial success. In Japan Anime production skyrockets, with many Anime series and feature films being released. Animation as a medium had become a highly respected art in Japan. It would only be a few more years before any major Anime franchise made it to the states. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation take home the Emmy for their short The Man Who Planted Trees, the short is based on the story of the same name.

1988 basically ends Wall Street’s era of Animation. The number of new cartoon shows commissioned drops drastically. This in turns creates instability within the Animation industry, following Fowler’s time as the FCC Commissioner, cartoon shows were being commissioned left and right. Year after year, in an almost unseen number. Turning studios into Hanna-Barbera like companies, such as Rankin/Bass, Filmation Studios, and even Marvel Productions. However with the FCC starting to regulate children’s programming again, many toy companies and Wall Street investors began to lose interest in TV Animation. As it would be harder to make money now. So while many studios had been making a profit, though Hanna Barbera still had a greater lead, the lack of a need for new cartoons would begin to drain the Animation TV based market. Furthermore Hanna Barbera was nearing its deathbed, as many of their newer shows were considered failures. Such as a Pup Named Scooby-Doo, which was basically Scooby-Doo dumbed down for kids. They had of course done this periodically throughout the 80s, old shows were rehashed. Removing elements of the original shows and replacing them with elements that were “popular” with successful cartoons in the 80s. However this was true for many Animation studios, they all went with the flow, few would survive in the 90s. Many studios were either bought out or merged into other larger studios. Garfield and Friends is released by Roman Films. The cartoon series is based on the comic strip by Jim Davis. Oliver and Company is released by Disney Animation, marking the studios’ first real financial success of the 80s. This prompted great confidence and a shift within Disney Animation, as Disney sought to  release animated features yearly. Although The Land Before Time released that same day by Sullivan Bluth Studios, and beat out Disney at the box office. The movie was great collaboration with Don Bluth, Steven Spielberg, and George Lucas. Who Framed Roger Rabbit is released by Touchstone Pictures to critical acclaim. The film imagines a world that is inhabited by both people and cartoon characters. It made lots of money and proved that live action/Animated combo films could be good. Pixar wins an Academy Award for their Short Tin Toy. Their first big achievement in Hollywood. Tinny, a tin toy, interacts with a baby which brings hilarious results. Their achievements with CGI would eventually led to their partnership Disney.

1989 is truly the end of the 1980s era of Animation for many reasons. Not for the fact that it was last year of the 80s, but things were brewing politically. Ronald Reagan was gone, and instead we now had George H,W. Bush as president. People had become very angry over Wall Streets actions with buying out stations and peddling what many felt was an inferior quality of TV. Compared of course to the 50s-70s era of TV, as quality programming and servicing the public conscious were primary goals. TV in the 80s had degraded, its primary goal was to create shows that could be popular, which in turn could be used to gain lucrative ad revenue. So it boiled down to what are the most popular shows, and how can we make them cheaply? Just because a show is popular, doesn’t mean its well written or made. However more to the point, this of course affected parent’s opinions on cartoons. Parents grew to feel that cartoons had basically exploited kids, all in the name of selling toys, comics, and other dumb pieces of merchandise. Even if you were ok with this fact, which indeed led to increased sales of merchandise by toy and comic companies, there was also the fact that these shows had no redeeming qualities. Most shows had no continuity or real plot, so every episode was an isolated incident. There was also the fact that sometimes these shows were inappropriate for kids. Such as GI Joe, Robotech, Rambo: The Force of Freedom, Jem, etc. As many of these “kids” shows had lots violence, concepts on love that were too mature for children to grasp, as well as other element usually thought to be too mature for children to understand. This also led to a brewing political debate. With Fowler gone, ACT was back in full force. TV had usually been a self regulating industry, though there was still debate that TV needed to have set guidelines. Before the 80s, TV had regulated itself enough, that there was no basis for regulations. Parents might voice concerns to stations or the FCC, and these concerns were then addressed. As the FCC did not fulfill their duties in the 1980s, there was finally a reason to create more concrete standards for TV programming. ACT was campaigning more in order to regulate children’s programming, holding rallies, as well as talking to both State and Federal government officials. The hammer was coming down on unregulated TV Animation programs. This also marks Disney finding itself again creatively and commercially with their release of The Little Mermaid. A movie in which Ariel, a mermaid, falls in love with a human. Their movie was again, up against a Don Bluth production, All Dogs go to Heaven. His film focused on a tale of life, death, revenge, and friendship between two dogs. However unlike the last two times, Disney crushed Don Bluth’s movie at the box office. This victory helped usher in Disney’s second golden age. A vision in which Roy Disney sought to make Disney Animation the top Cinematic Animation studio, as well as creating an impressive TV Animation lineup. Balance by Wolfgang and Christoph Lauenstein, takes home the Emmy. The German film is about a group of men who live on a small floating platform and must all move together in order to balance the platform and keep themselves from falling. Production on The Ren & Stimpy Show pilot begins, it would later be sold to Nickelodeon in 1990. The voice behind Porky Pig and 1000s of other voices, Mel Blanc finally dies, with his passing the Golden Age of Animation is essentially gone. Osamu Tezuka dies. Many saw him as the Godfather of Anime, and an equal to Walt Disney. He is widely considered to have laid down the foundations for the Anime style of Animation. The Simpsons is finally given its own primetime show, and as such it is finally divorced from the Tracey Ullman Show. The show follows the Simpsons family and their ridiculous adventures in Springfield. Their first episode, Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire, aired on December 17, closing out this terrible decade of Animation with a bang. Thus the Modern Age or perhaps Second Golden Age of American Animation begins.

What characterized this era of American Animation was the fact that Wall Street had a vested interest in Animation. There was also the advent of CGI technology greatly advancing, and the passing of many great Animators. Leaving room for a newer generation of Animators. Disney Animation was seemingly falling apart, while other Animation studios were flourishing. The absence of Disney’s Nine Angry Men greatly affected the direction Disney was going. Deregulation of TV based Animation led to a degradation of quality. Many Animation studios became dependent on toy based partnerships. So while they succeed in the Animation market, they were left in bad financial shape once they were bought out by bigger companies who sought to decrease production costs. Likewise once TV Animation began to be regulated again, many of the toy based partnerships were no longer viable. This all led to many studios going bankrupt, defunct, or merged into larger studios. Even Hanna Barbera was in ruin, due to their parent company Taft, going belly up. By the end of the decade every major movie studio such as MGM and Universal were already bought out by big conglomerate companies. This would go on to affect how the movie industry does business. This also meant that every Golden Age Animated short was now owned by a select few companies. Through all of this only Disney, Warner Bros, Pixar, and Nickelodeon were in good financial shape. Disney Animation was already under better management. While the other studios had not gambled on partnerships or get rich quick schemes. This also poised Turner broadcasting to create Cartoon Network in the 1990s. All this corporatization of Animation nearly killed the spirit of Animation. In particular the creative nature, as well as the ability to create Animation that was geared towards adults. Heavyweights Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon would soon build their empires. The 90s would see a rebirth of Animation, creativity would flow back, and some of the greatest series’ would be Animated to life by Ainmators frame by frame.

Hidden Characters – Forgot About the 90s?

The 90s, its a nearly forgotten era. Being a tumultuous time for both media and streetwear. Many great artists and movements existed during this time that tried to challenge people’s collective way of thinking. Of course Nirvana and 2Pac will instantly come to mind. Much of the 90s philosophy ended through the death of various people who were spearheading the revolution that was grunge as well as gangsta rap. However the 90s was more than just a revolution in music, there was also countless new shows and cartoons that caught the eye of millions of people. There was also Anime, and even video games during this period which helped give the 90s its own unique zeitgeist. For video games there was the advent of 3D gaming environments, utilized by the likes of the Final Fantasy series and Metal Gear Solid franchise. As for Anime there were many well written shows that existed during this time, such as Neon Genesis Evangelion, as well as Pokemon. Streetwear in the 90s was also different as, it was occurring at a benign level. Being widely ignored by both fashion and major media outlets.

2001 was more or less the end of many ideals that were persistent in the 90s. The 2000s was a very 80s nostalgic era. Many popular fashion and streetwear brands alike heavily referenced 80s pop culture, stealing it, commenting on it, even incorporating concepts and transforming them into contemporary logos or themes. However over the last few years as the bigger more senior streetwear brands have begun to show their age, some newer streetwear brands have begun to look towards the 90s for inspiration. For their second drop of 2014, Hidden Characters took on a bigger risk, looking back at a vastly ignored zeitgeist and took inspiration from its obscure elements.

WWF’s Mick Foley, Final Fantasy, and Attack on Titan all clock in as inspirations this time around. For those who didn’t grow up in the 90s, or just don’t remember, WWE was originally known as WWF for many years. The main focus of WWF (World Wrestling Federation) was mainly to promote more adult oriented wrestlers, giving the masses someone to love or hate. Whereas today’s WWE (World Wrestling Entertainment) is mainly focused on creating a spectacle that the whole family can love. Mick Foley is the specific subject that Hidden Characters chose to tap into. What characterized him was that he seemed to have multiple personality disorder. Foley seemed to always use fuck or its variations in his vocabulary, he drank lots of booze, acted liked a deranged stalker at times, as well as being a womanizer, among other things. Mankind was the psycho of Mick Foley’s personality, being a brute, often mumbling nonsense, as well as shoving his dirty sock down people’s throats, truly he was deranged. Foley was a staple throughout the 90s, what with all his drinking and all the tail he managed to scrounge up. In a nutshell hes the lovable creep from the corner of your street.

Final Fantasy may have been around in Japan since the late 80s, but it didn’t come to America til the 90s. What can be said about the series, more like what can’t be said about it? Every game was a new one even though our favorite characters never came back, you always had a new favorite character that kept you coming back to the series. The Final Fantasy franchise had a unique theme for every game, certain characters would find their way back into each installment, albeit with different designs and purposes. What probably made Final Fantasy so enjoyable in the 90s was being able to do summons. Basically You could unlock certain monsters, which were called elementals or Aeons. You could bring them to the battlefield and they’d kill your enemies, because you know, they were basically your slaves. Arguably the most popular summon was Ifrit, a goat looking humanoid fire Aeon. Hes a staple in the Final Fantasy series, usually being unlockable, though in the newer games it isn’t possible to unlock him. Which is a shame, because Ifrit is usually the villain nowadays.

Lastly, but certainly not least Hidden Characters again chose Anime as a motif. This time around they didn’t actually use an Anime from the 90s, instead they took cues from Attack on Titan, which is a newer Anime. Some might debate the merits of using a newer Anime as inspiration, as Attack on Titan products are sold at Hot Topic. However there really is a lot to elaborate on when talking about Attack on Titan. As a whole Anime is being mass produced, like food or clothing, and being sheparded to America. Though this may seem great, many of these newer shows lack depth, or creativity. Although once in while something breaks through the mundane and gets people excited again as well as thinking in new ways. Attack on Titan is something that invokes the spirit of 90s Anime, as it goes beyond the concept of friendship, a very overused theme. The series questions the existence of mankind, and what possible purpose do individuals serve in the grand scheme of life. Trigun questioned people’s resolve to live, as well as their nature. Evangelion in particular questioned people’s desire to be individuals, and what the ramifications of freewill could be. In ways Attack on Titan mirrors the drive of older Anime.

Hidden Characters’ second drop of 2014 consisted of three tees, as well as their first venture into pants. The brand has already shown to have a strong following, so rather then starting their second release off with a typical lookbook, they opted for a different route. Out of the kindness of Hidden Characters’ dark hearts, a select number of buyers from the first release of 2014 were given all three tees from the second drop as well as a plethora of freebies. Such as silkscreens and stickers. Apparently Hidden Characters wants its fans to know that selling your soul to them, comes with many great perks. Following this fans were shown a lookbook which gave off a sense of battle, pain, and of course blood. Much of this can be attributed as being a nod to the Mick Foley tee which was arguably the tee that had the most amount of silkscreen put into it. Though their IFRIT tee probably took more time to design, as it featured a fair amount of original artwork from the brand. While The Inner Demons tee was a great tee that showcased an overall theme for Hidden Characters. As for the Battle Dress Uniform pants, each pair of pants were apparently given an extra print featuring the buyers name on the tags of the pants.

Each product was given a meticulous amount of thought and execution put into it. The Mick Foley tee has prints all around the shirt. The front showing a classic Cactus Jack moment, as he strikes down his opponent with his barbed wire 2×4, 1991 is the year he debuted at WWF. The right sleeve print is another memorable moment, presumably from one of Foley’s many Hell in a Cell matches, all bloodied and battered. Yet he persists with his twisted smile. The left sleeve is a nod to Foley’s autobiographical book, Have A Nice Day: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks. The back has the biggest print, with the most detail. Another Hell in the Cell match is shown, with Mankind dominating the ring. The various dates written are the most memorable matches of Mick Foley’s career. At the very bottom is a classic WWF inspired Hidden Characters logo, which looks very sleek and well rendered. What can be said about this shirt? Everything is so right. While Mickey Foley may not be associated with streetwear, he is an example of what streetwear’s principle convictions are. The IFRIT has some beautifully drawn art by  Hidden Characters, which is located on the back. Teased months before the drop, fans were given a peak on HC’s tumblr. So much detail is put into IFRIT’s clothing. Its trademark goat horns are displayed, while the position of its body suggests that its being summoned into battle, likely from some fire-y brimstone-y place. A nice nod to the FF series. Right below IFRIT, the text Hidden is written. While coming off as being the usual old english inspired gangsta text, it also has an added stylization which may be of Asian origin. Below the Hidden text, theres an added smaller Arabic text, which possibly says IFRIT. The back graphics are amazing, although the front graphic also pays a great tribute to Final Fantasy. Utilizing the logo from Final Fantasy VI as a base, for obvious reasons, while establishing their own name in lieu of the og FF moniker. What makes this small logo so nice is the fact that Hidden Characters made each logo a slightly different color, making the IFRIT tee an especially unique piece to own. Regardless of why you like it, the IFRIT tee is for anyone who loves Final Fantasy, the 90s, or in general great design work. The last tee to examine is The Inner Demons tee. Unlike the last two, this shirt isn’t really giving a shout out to anything specifically. It does flip a graphic from Attack on Titan. This could be for purely aesthetical purposes. Furthermore this tee may serve as a soapbox for what Hidden Characters wants to embody. A pocket is sewn on front, with their own label protruding from the side. A fairly simple red label that reads “Hidden.” On the right sleeve with an odd display of numbers, 1-9 are printed. In particular the 1 is engulfed in a circle. If you want to delve deeper, one could say that the numbers have significance, perhaps in biblical terms or numerology. 1 meaning individual, while 9 may signify completion. Or it may just be a nice pop driven print. The left sleeve is a bit more interesting as Hidden Characters’ mountain is displayed, presumably their base of operations. While below that Purgatory is written backwards, another possible hint of where they operate from. Finally on the back theres a diagram, repurposed from Attack on Titan. The illustration shows that killing a Titan requires their nape to be cut out. While the graphic is fairly simple, what it represents is somewhat chilling. Below, “The Inner Demons” can be read. This added text changes what the graphic means. The graphic may represent the evils of mankind, while the severed neck may symbolize that evil exists within humanity. Its all ambiguous, but nonetheless its a really clean tee to wear that reps Hidden Characters, while fostering some base ideals. Mainly death and Anime, while still encouraging fans to think beyond the scope of superficiality, concerning their own graphics. On a last note theres also Hidden Characters’ BDU pants, which are different from most pants you’ll find on the streetwear market. One difference being that they only came in two sizes, having an elastic waistband, ranging from waists 27″-34″ as well as having a sewn on ‘Hidden” patch. Doing the embroidery themselves, it came out rather nice, another little element that HC added were the buyer’s names to the tags, thereby giving the wearer a more unique product.

Trailing from their last drop of 2014 Hidden Characters has continued to showcase their penchant for making quality graphics and executing bold ideas that keep bringing people back who want more HC clothing. If you were lucky enough to cop from this drop, count yourself lucky. Their next apparel release, which will probably be dropping soon, won’t be any easier to buy. Whats ironic is that many people were likely skeptical of a brand that chose to tap the likes of WWF, Final Fantasy, and perhaps Attack on Titan. WWF, because its not a streetwear thing. Final Fantasy, because its for nerds. Attack on Titan, because its a Hot Topic brand. The potential criticisms may be endless. Despite this, Hidden Characters still sold out their stock on this second drop. Proving that they can indeed change the status quo in streetwear, and will eventually be future leaders in the industry. Stay tuned for the next drop, no one knows when its coming. Be patient, be swift, and stay hidden.

Mick Foley

IFRIT

The Inner Demons

Battle Dress Uniform pants

*SS14, second drop

*Sold Out

*Hidden Chracters Twitter and Tumblr.

* Google Hidden Characters Hypebeast to find their forum and stay updated.

Guardians of the Galaxy – Differing Puzzle Pieces that fit

When people think of Marvel movies, they most likely will think of the Avengers. Maybe Iron Man more specifically. Looking back at The Avengers from 2012, the story took place on a planetary level. However the heroes who saved the world seemed to have little in common, well from a glance. The Hulk is big and green, Cap is literally from a different era in time, Thor is from a different dimension, while Iron Man comes off as being very egotistical. Everyone was an outcast in their own right, mostly due to their great individual powers. However despite their different backgrounds the heroes found unity in the fact that they all wanted to save the Earth, as most of them live there, and have loved ones residing there. Moreover through their fighting and arguing, the Avengers realized that they actually share certain ideals and can even relate to one another on a more personal level.

However Guardians of the Galaxy, directed by James Gunn, approaches the super hero collective in a different light. Not only do most of the team have differing reasons for living, they aren’t even the same species. And really thats one of the main driving ideas in Guardians of the Galaxy. Unity through collective rejection. As all of the characters meet through reaching their lowest points in life, specifically all being incarcerated in the same prison. The team is rallied by Peter Quill/Star-Lord, as he figures they’re all losers, and only coming together as a team can they be a greater force in the galaxy. Specifically something a force for good.

Looking at every character’s background gives us a better idea of what type of group the Guardians of the Galaxy are. 

Peter Quill/Star-Lord, Chris Pratt, was abduct as a young boy right after his mother died. Furthermore Quill didn’t know his father, the fact that he has no family is something that does weigh on Quill throughout the film. As evidenced by him carrying around a Walkman his mom gave him, while often listening to the mix tape she made him. Another curious element is that Quill kept a present his mom gave to him, but never opened it. Perhaps he still hasn’t come to terms with his final meeting with her, a meeting that was emotionally grueling for him. He was raised by the Ravagers, and became a great thief. While the Ravers obviously consider Quill part of their group, Quill doesn’t always identify himself as part of the Ravagers. Then theres Gamora, played by Zoe Saldana. Her family was killed, while she was captured by Thanos, and forced to become one of his assassin “daughters.” Like Quill, Gamora does not associate Thanos as being her father in any context, she does however consider Nebula a sister. Gamora is ultimately seeking to stop Thanos from attending a great power. Rocket, voiced by Bradley Cooper, is probably the most peculiar of the group as he was a common raccoon, who was then experimented on be means of dissection and reassembly, until he was final modified with cybernetics and a genius intellect. Of course he has no family, and being that hes basically a one-off experiment he feels like hes a monster/joke.Though Groot, voiced by Vin Diesel, does service as Rocket’s surrogate family. Goot is a humanoid plant, which can almost only say “I am Groot.” As a result we know nothing about Groot’s family or background, though The Collector insinuates that Goot’s people may have gone extinct. Groot unlike the rest of the group does not seem to be motivated by loss or tragedy. Instead he may be drawn to Rocket, as he recognizes  Rocket and himself as being the only ones of their kind. As such Groot is never far from Rocket, while Rocket some times belittles Groot, both do look out for each other’s well being. As evidenced near the climax of the film, with Groot nearly dying. Drax is the last member to show up onscreen. While having a similar story to Gamora’s, Drax lost his wife and child to Ronin’s armies. His sole desire is to kill Ronin, because of this he is filled with great anger.

Their primary antagonists are Ronan The Accuser, portrayed by Lee Pace, and Nebula, played by Karen Gillan. Ronan is a Kree who heavily believes in their traditions and seeks to give the orb to Thanos, so that the Xandarian people will be exterminated. Nebula initially helps Ronan because Thanos orders her to help him retrieve the orb. While Yondu, played by Michael Rooker, seems to be after Quill for stealing the orb before he and the other Ravagers could.

The film opens with Quill talking to his mom on her death bed, she gives him a present and wants him to open it, which he refuses. Moments later she dies and unable to bare the pain Quill runs off and is abducted by the Ravagers. 20 years passed and Quill goes to steal an orb from Ronan. Later as he tries to hock the orb, Quill finds himself in a fight with Gamora, Rocket and Groot. This lands them all in prison.

The Guardians of the Galaxy start out more as criminals in film, because of this they aren’t really a team until the latter of the film. Save for Gamora, who is initially the only one of the collective looking to do something noble. Specifically storing the orb, whichs holds an infinity stone, somewhere where no one will be able to use it for evil. While Quill is looking for a greater purpose in his life, which at first seemed to be becoming a well known and great thief. Rocket and Groot are mercenaries looking for a big pay day, so they can retire somewhere nice. Then of course theres Drax who simply wants revenge. Everyone’s differing desires, causes clashes amongst these criminals.

After the group escapes from prison, their plan is to meet with Gamora’s client, who will give them enough money to live out their lives comfortably. They meet up with The Collector, who reveals that the orb is an Infinity Stone. An object of great power that can destroy worlds, and do more. The Collector’s assistant grabs the stone, infusing her with great power, though she can’t contain it. As a result she explodes, and nearly destroys The Collector’s gargantuan home.

From here the mission changes. Gamora seeks to give the stone, to the Nova Corps on the Xandarian home world. However due to Drax’s strong desire to kill Ronan, he actually gives him their location. Causing the Guardians to flee. Ronan shows up with his army and takes the orb, while easily beating Drax. Quill, against Rocket’s wishes, saves Gamora by floating in space and giving her his mask to breath, and contacts Yondu. Quill is able to convince Yondu that together they can get the orb back and make a great profit together. Rocket, Groot, and Drax tag along.

Ronan discovers that the orb houses an Infinity Stone and places it on his hammer, which is able to stabilize the stone’s power. He also declares to Thanos that he will kill him, which causes Nebula to continue her alliance to Ronan out of her hate towards her adoptive father. With this last part, the theme of family should already be obvious to the audience. As all of the main and most of the supporting characters have particularly strong feelings of family, which ultimately does play a role in each character’s motives in the movie. All of the GotG members have lost their family, so they initially only rely on themselves for support. While Ronan desires to fulfill the wishes of his forefathers by killing the Xandarians.

Again things change, this time in everyone’s mentality. The Guardians of the Galaxy are symbolically born through Quill’s speech to the others. Gamora’s desire to strive for redemption, driven by her time killing for Thanos, inspires Quill. He decides that together this group of criminals (Gamora, Rocket, Groot, Drax, and himself) can do great things, specifically being a force for good. As he says they’re all “losers” and have have encountered great losses, but can overcome this if they unite with a singular purpose in mind. Quill contacts Rhomann Dey, played by John C. Reilly, who earlier had arrested the GotG except for Drax, and informs him that Ronan is coming with his forces to destroy Xandar. The Nova Corps is put on alert, and with help from the Ravagers are able to greatly slow down Ronan’s assault. 

The GotG are able to infiltrate Ronan’s ship. Nebula is subdued and later flees. Ronan is then confronted by the GotG, however they fail to neutralize him. As a result most, of the Nova Corps are killed and Ronan’s ship crashes on Xandar. At around the same time Groot encases himself and his team within his own body mass and suffers most of the impact from the fall, seemingly killing him. Ronan proceeds to bestow The Guardians of the Galaxy moniker to Quill and his friends, while in same breath taunting them for not being able to kill him. 

In an odd scene Quill challenges Ronan to a dance off. While it seems very out of place, its actually a distraction for Rocket to shoot Ronan with his makeshift weapon. This causes the hammer to break, thus freeing the Infinity Stone. Quill is able to grab the stone, however he doesn’t explode. During this time Quill confronts his mother in his mind, and comes to terms with her death. Zamora and the other Guardians grab Quill’s hand, and are able to control the power. Together they use the stone to kill Ronan. 

The aftermath results in the Guardians of the Galaxy being recognized as an official galactic force for good by the Nova Corp. Yondu is given a fake orb, while he realizes this he obviously has no ill feelings towards Quill. He then reveals that the Ravagers were supposed to transport Quill to his father, but decided not to as he was an “asshole.” They are also absolved of their crimes, and the Nova Corp feels confident that Quill will be able to keep the team united. As well as informing Quill that he is only half human, and maybe part Ancient. With the celebration over, Quill finally feels its time to open his gift that his mother had given him before she died. Its revealed to be another mix tape, and he proceeds to play it. A piece of Groot is revealed to have survived and is slowly growing back into its form. Afterwards the Guardians of the Galaxy proceed to venture off into space, presumable to their next mission.

Howard the Duck is teased in the after-credits scene, drinking a beverage with The Collector. This in particular is an example in how Disney handled The Guardians of the Galaxy. Simply put, discord and alienation can breed unity. Unlike The Avengers, The Guardians have little in common, each character is vastly different. The Avengers all come off as being heroic individuals, who while having slightly different ideas regarding defending the Earth, can come together in perfect unison and defend the Earth. At their very core, they are all the same the archetype, being heroes with typical heroic traits with certain variations to paint them as more unique individuals. Each of The Avenger’s stand alone movies, like Captain America, is of course able to delve deeper into each character. However all of the members of The Avengers, had much of their personalities watered down in The Avengers movie. Being in the presence of one another they did show some uneasiness, but nothing too volatile. Whereas The Guardians of the Galaxy were very aggressive to one another, because their personalities seemed much stronger. However this is necessary as the GotG were unknown and therefore the viewer needed to see them as individuals before being convinced that could really be a group of heroes. Being that these characters were all new giving them strong attitudes helps us better understand these characters as individuals.Quill is a selfish thief, Gamora is an assassin looking for redemption, Drax is killing seeking revenge, while Rocket and Groot are outcasts/mercenaries.The fact that they’re all different races further cements that these protagonists are indeed unique. Of course they can all put aside their differences and through unconventional means form a dynamic team.

James Gunn was able to help the audience understand these characters, by devoting a good amount of screen time to their origins, Though only Quill’s life is actually shown onscreen. The movie flows pretty well with a few hicips that make you wonder whats going on. Most of these are usually caused by Quill, at times he comes off as being too awkward. Likewise in a few shots Pratt’s acting doesn’t seem believable. so he sometimes seems like a flat actor. Though for the most part Quill is very comedic and brings some relief to tense moments, while still showing signs of being human. The group arguments between the Guardians is always fun to watch being that they are all trying to prove themselves to each other. Ronan makes a good villain and so at times he seems overqualified to be the main villain of the film. He also elaborates on who Thanos is and what he wants. setting things up, for possible The Avengers 3. The effects are without question well made and executed. Especially when Quill saves Gamora from dying in space. There are many great scenes in the movie. Though the opening scene with Quill and his mom is probably one of the best photographed in the film. So overall Guardians of the Galaxy is definitely worth a watch, at least two. You may not like it compared to other comic book films as the heroes aren’t typical, however you may find yourself empathizing with the Guardians of the Galaxy regardless about what you may initially feel about them.

The Hunt (2012) – De Facto Guilt

The Hunt is a 2012 Danish film by director Thomas Vinterberg. Mads Mikkelsen stars as Lucas, the movie’s protagonist. In many cases of child molestation, once the story is broken amongst the community its effects are nearly apparent. The accused is de facto guilty by the community. Whatever the accused says to exonerate themselves is perceived as a lie, as “children don’t lie.” Now in many cases of child molestation, the accused is usually proven guilty. The abuser is forever tainted with what they did and society promptly labels them as some sort of sub human creature. However in cases in which the accused is proven not guilty, things can sometimes become more complex. Most people accused of child molestation are proven guilty, so those that are proven not guilty are often viewed with contempt. So while being innocent of the crime brought against them and exonerated by the courts, they are guilty for simply being accused of the crime.

This idea of de facto guilt is what strongly drives The Hunt. Ultimately this is what makes the movie an intriguing subject to watch, as other movies have delved into the problems of identifying situations of child molestation and the difficulties of convicting offenders. Doubt (2008) is actually a good compliment to The Hunt as the differing subjects and style of shooting allows people to see both sides of the spectrum when dealing with a sensitive subject. When watching one movie, I feel its also a good idea to also watch the other film. In both flicks there are main characters who are trying to do the right thing, yet are constantly stonewalled or put through the ringer by their respective communities. In Doubt Sister Aloysius tries to expose Father Flynn’s misconduct with a child, however she is later stonewalled by the church and seen as being an enemy. Whereas in The Hunt Lucas tries to break through his town’s growing prejudice and disgust in him while trying to prove his innocence, despite answering the accusation against him.

In The Hunt the movie opens with Lucas, who is a  middle aged divorced man and living in a somewhat small Danish town. Hunting is ultimately what unites the men, and thus the families and people of the town. Its also the basis for the title as  Lucas is the hunted. He is a kindergarten assistant and all of the kids love him, as well as his coworkers. Together they act as a sort of safety net for the kids who live in a hostel family atmosphere. Klara, Annika Wedderkopp, is one of these children. Being the child of Theo, Lucas’ best friend, they share a bond that is slightly more special. The key difference being that Klara sometimes is taken to school by Lucas or comes to his house to walk his dog Fanny. Klara’s parents seem to bicker often, which in turn leads her to spend time with Lucas, so she can gain her a reprieve from the madness in her home.

While much of this is fairly harmless, certain elements brew together, which slowly culminate to shatter Lucas’ life and the relationships with the various people he has known for years. Klara’s closeness to Lucas is one element. She longs to seemingly have someone  in her life who can protect her from her parents fighting. Lucas apparently  fills this role, and as a result she develops the inkling of a childlike romance towards him. One day Klara’s brother and his friend show her porn, this is the first time she sees an erect penis. Later she gives Lucas a romantic-ish card, and slips it into his coat. That same day she kisses Lucas on the lips. Lucas then gives the card back to Klara. She expresses her hate for Lucas, which is childish, to Grethe. Being a child  Klara puts two things that she knows together into one sentence, one being that she knows Lucas, and the other being that penises can be erect. Feeling uneasy with what Klara said, Grethe takes action and tries to determine whether or not Klara has been molested by Lucas. She of course informs Klara’s mom, who is horrified. Eventually Klara meets with a specialist in order to figure out if she has been molested.

This is where things truly begin to build up against Lucas. At this point things are going pretty good in Lucas’ life. He has a girlfriend, his son has decided to live with him instead of his ex wife, and he has a great relationship with the various parents whose kids go to his school. Likewise the feeling of the town is that of kinship and laxness. However once Klara is to be questioned on her story, Lucas is promptly put on leave. This is without question the eye of the storm. At this point, if all goes well with Klara’s assessment, then the community can continue on with its peaceful existence. However the truth is rarely heard or understood when Klara is asked questions and she responds to the best of her ability. Going into his interview, the specialist already seems biased. Neither Grethe or the specialist seem to know what to do when assessing a possible case of child molestation. Instead of trying to fully explain what they are asking of Klara, such as what happened between her and Lucas. Why does she hate Lucas, what does the heart mean? Or even Did he hurt her or do anything to her which made her feel uncomfortable? Klara is far too young to really understand these questions and so she gives very vague responses. Regardless its enough for Grethe and the specialist to run with their imaginations. Sewing a story extremely lewd which seems to never have an ending. The aftermath of Klara’s “confirmed” molestation is swift and continues to build extremely damaging momentum, so much so that not even she is safe.

Of course Lucas’ suspension continues, and he is informed that the charges brought against him have merit. Grethe quickly informs the parents of Lucas’ supposed guilt, however she adds fire to the flame by saying there could be several cases of molestation. While the parents begin to observe their children for symptoms of  abuse, the story of Klara’s abuse is continually twisted and added to, thereby breeding various stories. As Lucas determines the accusations are based between him and Klara he tries in a vain attempt to plead with her parents that he is innocent. Theo is obviously still in shock and displays doubt as to who he should believe. However his wife undoubtedly reinforces Lucas’ guilt into his mind. The story continues to spread and grow in prominence, so much so that Lucas is even assaulted when he tries to buy groceries from the market, specifically by its employees. The town perpetuates the idea that Lucas is guilty, so much so that his girlfriend eventually doubts his innocence, this leads to their breakup. Grethe seems to possibly be responsible for the stories circulating about Lucas. One day he confronts her, while he begs her to tell him what the contents of the stories are she continually remains silent and retreats from his presence.

This is especially important, because the audience never actually hears any of these accusations that are being bought against Lucas, only the original story that is created by Grethe. This really brings a feeling of ostracization, as Lucas wants to know what people are saying about him, he wants to know how ugly this story has evolved. However both him and the viewer are not even allowed to know what is being said, which makes Lucas a very defenseless character. This puts Lucas and the audience in the same boat helping us empathize with him. Things grow more complicated once Lucas’ ex wife Kristin is told by someone, likely that he is a twisted child molester, this in turn is relayed to his son Marcus. Who comes to his aid, going to the town and staying with him. In a strong and emotional scene Marcus tries to confront Klara as to why she “accused” his dad of molesting her. It ends with him being beaten a bit. Eventually only one family, Bruun’s, decides to side with Lucas as they have known each other for years and truly believe he is not guilty. As Lucas and Marcus are staying with the family, they prepare for the case. This serves to bring a vestige of hope to Lucas’ seemingly hopeless situation. The next day Lucas is taken away by the police. While investigating the claims, an element added to the abuse stores was a basement. However the authorities find no basement and believe Lucas is indeed innocent, the charges are then dropped. Thus the story of supposed abuse is crushed as well as the constant persecution from the community, well not quite.

Apparently Lucas was only in the eye of the storm. Lucas’ life actually gets worse. De facto guilt has been invoked. The idea that Lucas has dodged justice is probably  coursing through the minds of the people. The town still hate him and his son. In probably the stronger climax, as there could arguably be two, a rock is thrown into Lucas’ house. This prompts Lucas and Marcus to investigate whats going on, only to discover a dead Fanny. Lucas proceeds to bury her, which also echoes the town’s tranquil nature or possibly innocence. Marcus is sent home, leaving Lucas to discover a solution to his dilemma to which there seems to be non. The months continue to pass, by this time its Christmas. Yet nothing has changed for Lucas. He decides to attend the special Christmas service, to which the second climax is introduced. Lucas sits towards the front, while Theo and his family sits near the back. Lucas can hear the other people talking about him, however hes more concerned with Theo. He occasionally looks back at Theo, and witnesses him exchanging words with his wife. In a fit of anger and sorrow Lucas confronts Theo telling him to look into his eyes to see he has no guilt in him, but Theo chooses to ignore him. In his frustration Lucas starts slapping Theo, this leads to Lucas’ ejection from the church.

Back home Theo put Klara to bed, and quietly laments to himself. A barely awake Klara mistakes her father as Lucas and expresses her sadness over the events of the film and how they are no longer close. Especially how Marcus hates her, and how she misses walking with Fanny. Then she basically confesses that she doesn’t know why people hate him, because he has not done anything to her. She expresses that what people say happened to her, did in fact not occur. In a way this is symbolic for Theo, who  is finally able  to recognize Lucas’ innocence. Its also reminiscent for how the lies started in the darkness and how the truth was eventually uncovered in the night as well. Theo drinks his figurative medicine and tells his wife what Klara said. Against her wishes he decides to go and take some food to Lucas. The two reconcile, and Theo wholeheartedly wants to clear Lucas of any wrongdoing.

A year passes and it seems that Lucas’ life has been fully restored. Marcus is living with his dad now, Lucas has reconciled with his girlfriend, and the community has embraced Lucas’ innocence bringing him back in sync with everyone. Hunting season has begun and Marcus is ready to accept his manhood. Lucas and Klara are back to being close family friends. All is well that ends well. Except that Lucas manages to dodge a bullet to his head by a total fluke. A startled and scared Lucas looks at his attacker unable to make out the person’s face against the sun. Too in shock to chase the gunman, Lucas is left to lament on the fact, that things have not come full circle and maybe never will.

The ending rings true. As most people accused of molestation will likely never be viewed as innocent by the communities they live in or places they work. It will forever hang over them, unless these people choose to leave the places they reside in and move some place where no one knows them. Now of course The Hunt is not trying to say that all people accused of molestation are innocent. However it can be viewed as the consequences for when the proper channels of identifying and reporting cases of abuse fail. Again going back to Grethe and the specialist, there are many possible things that could have been done in order to avoid the fallout of Lucas’ de facto guilt. That said the movie is a great drama. It portrays a man desperately trying to clear his name, as well as fighting an invisible enemy that resides in people’s minds. Specifically fear and assumptions. Constantly we see Lucas up against the wall of accusations and even in a corner silently receiving everyone’s hate. However Lucas trudges on, hoping to change everyone’s mind, which throughout the movie does not happen. The best angles that capture the mood are often the ones where Lucas or Klara are off center. These types of angles perfectly embody Lucas’ de facto guilt. As many people believe him to be guilt, so the town is focusing on him, yet they widely choose to avoid him or ignore his presence. The murder of Fanny is an especially chilling and enlightening scene,  as Fanny served as a link to Lucas’ and Klara’s close ties. One these ties die, they die hard. Fanny was also a very innocent canine. The Hunt is definitely worth a watch, and a rewatch.